The castle was built by the Hori clan who were sandwiched between several larger powers of the time including Rokkaku, Kyogoku and Asai. While it may seem like an out of the way location today, originally Lake Biwa had an inlet and swampy areas nearby so that the Nakasendo went through this valley. Banba-juku, at the base of the mountain was one of the post towns along the road. The castle also had commanding views up to Lake Biwa and other significant territories in the area making it an important defensive castle along the borderlands of Asai territory.
The Hori originally allied with the Asai but were forced to submit to the Rokkaku Sadayori in 1538 after the Rokkaku took the castle and Asai Sukemasa died. After Sadayori died in 1560, Asai Nagamasa attacked the Rokkaku and retook Kamaha Castle. When Nobunaga turned his attentions towards the Asakura, the Asai upheld their alliance with Asakura but the Hori defected to Nobunaga's side. During Nobunaga's conflicts with the Asai, the Asai actually attacked Kamaha Castle but it withstood their attacks with the help of Hideyoshi. After the Asai were defeated the Hori were made made subordinate to Hideyoshi but they did not get along well and a year later in 1574 the clan was demoted and the castle dismantled. One might wonder what would have happened to Japanese history if the Hori had not defected to Nobunaga and instead cut off his routes back home to Gifu.
This was possibly my highlight for 2022 castle visits. It combined a great hike, great views, outstanding weather, fall colors, lots to explore, stone walls and just a little bit of danger. First, the castle is somewhat difficult to get to since it is a 1 hr walk just to the hiking entrance from which it's another hour hike to the start of the castle. There are infrequent busses from Maibara Station to the Banba-juku. You could also rent a bicycle at the station or take a taxi. Plan accordingly.
Kamaha Castle runs across three ridges with fantastic views of the surrounding domains including up to Lake Biwa, Sawayama Castle, Odani Castle, Yokoyama Castle and the Mt. Ibuki area. Kamaha Castle was once famous for its white limestone stone walls that could be seen shining from far away. Most of those walls have since crumbled but there are four main places where ishigaki stone walls can be seen today: main bailey walls, two gates and one "great stone wall" (a section of stonework 4 meters high and about 30m long). Scattered throughout the castle you will also find small bits of stonework along the sides of walls and under your foot buried in leaves. Significantly more stonework has been discovered through several studies but it was all reburied. You can see some photos of what was uncovered at the Kamaha Information Center near the trailhead.
The south ridge is a very narrow ridge with seven horikiri cut into the bedrock. This course is labelled for "advanced hikers". It was not so difficult but good shoes and caution are recommended. The stones were quite slippery in the autumn morning covered with moss and leaves and you may need to navigate some fallen trees along the narrow ridge. The central area is comprised of a main bailey and 2 sub baileys, also labelled as the south baileys. More interestingly however is the north ridge of the castle with 7 stepped baileys. The furthest bailey has a commanding view and is where a large, main keep sized, yagura once stood.
The western ridge is a treacherous downslope also recommended for advanced hikers. I would not dare it without good shoes and a trekking pole to help keep balance and prevent sliding down the slopes. This is another set of 8 small baileys in steps down the ridge with a few large horikiri in between. The most fascinating feature here is a set of about five successive tatebori (畝状竪堀) around the fifth and sixth bailey. They are signposted but they are a bit tricky to find because they are farther down the slope than the map would have you believe. According to the guide at the little museum/information center this type of successive tatebori is rare in the Kansai area and was probably an influence from when the Hori and Asai were allied with the Asakura who did employ such tatebori more often. See the history below for details.
You can find the ruins of the "lord's palace" just behind the information center too. It's not known for sure what this was but the structure was larger and more elaborate than most commoner homes so it may have been a palace for the lord or other high retainers, or given the proximity to the post town it may have been an inn for higher class travelers.
|English Name||Kamaha Castle|
|Year Founded||1400's (possibly earlier)|
|Castle Condition||Ruins only|
|Designations||Next 100 Castles, Top 100 Mountaintop Castles, National Historic Site|
|Historical Period||Pre Edo Period|
|Features||trenches, stone walls|
|Access||Maibara Sta (Tokaido Line), 20 min bus (infrequent, plan accordingly)|
|Visitor Information||mountain, open any time|
|Time Required||300 minutes (round trip hiking from the trailhead)|
|Location||Maibara, Shiga Prefecture|
|Coordinates||35° 17' 49.31" N, 136° 18' 55.40" E|
|Added to Jcastle||2023|
|Admin Year Visited||2022|
|Admin Visits||November 19, 2022|
|Friends of JCastle|
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