Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aida Iwabuchi Castle
  2. Aizu Odayama Castle
  3. Akagi Kita Castle
  4. Akagi Minami Castle
  5. Akatsuka Castle
  6. Akechi Osayama Castle
  7. Akizuki Castle
  8. Akutagawasan Castle
  9. Amabiki Castle
  10. Ametoya Castle
  11. Ansho Castle
  12. Aoiyama Castle
  13. Aoyagi Castle
  14. Aoyama Castle
  15. Aragaito Fort
  16. Arashi Castle
  17. Aratoshou Castle
  18. Arikoyama Castle
  19. Aruga Castle
  20. Asaba Castle
  21. Asahiyama Castle
  22. Ashigara Castle
  23. Asonuma Castle
  24. Asuke Castle
  25. Azuchi Castle
  26. Azumi Aoki Castle
  27. Azumi Futatsugi Castle
  28. Azumi Iwahara Castle
  29. Azumi Kameyama Castle
  30. Azumi Kitsune Castle
  31. Azumi Mondo Castle
  32. Azumi Nagao Castle
  33. Azumi Nakamura Castle
  34. Azumi Nishimaki Castle
  35. Azumi Nishiyama Castle
  36. Azumi Ogiwara Castle
  37. Azumi Ogura Castle
  38. Azumi Oshino Castle
  39. Azumi Sano Castle
  40. Azumi Shibutami Castle
  41. Azumi Shironomine Castle
  42. Azumi Takisawa Castle
  43. Azumi Tanoiri Castle
  44. Azumi Taya Castle
  45. Baba Yashiki
  46. Bingo Kouyama Castle
  47. Bitchu Kanmuriyama Castle
  48. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  49. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  50. Chausudate
  51. Chigasaki Castle
  52. Chihaya Castle
  53. Chiisagata Komaki Castle
  54. Chiisagata Komakikamino Castle
  55. Chiisagata Nakano Castle
  56. Chiisagata Nakao Castle
  57. Chiisagata Yashima Castle
  58. Chikatou Fort
  59. Chikuma Asahi Castle
  60. Chikuma Asaka Castle
  61. Chikuma Awaji Castle
  62. Chikuma Higashijou Castle
  63. Chikuma Hime Castle
  64. Chikuma Kakiage Castle
  65. Chikuma Koya Castle
  66. Chikuma Kushiki Castle
  67. Chikuma Moto Castle
  68. Chikuma Motoyama Castle
  69. Chikuma Narukami Castle
  70. Chikuma Nishijou Castle
  71. Chikuma Osaka Castle
  72. Chikuma Saruga Castle
  73. Chikuma Sasaga Castle
  74. Chikuma Sasano Castle
  75. Chikuma Sasazawa Castle
  76. Chikuma Takasu Castle
  77. Chikuma Takayama Castle
  78. Chikuma Takeda Castle
  79. Chikuma Tazawa Castle
  80. Chikuma Ueda Castle
  81. Chikuma Uenoyama Castle
  82. Chikuma Yagura Castle
  83. Chikuma Yamazaki Fort
  84. Chikuzen Sakata Castle
  85. Choujayama Castle
  86. Choujayashiki Yakata
  87. Dainenji Yakata
  88. Deura Castle
  89. Eboshigata Castle
  90. Echi Aoyama Castle
  91. Echi Hatada Castle
  92. Echi Hida Castle
  93. Echi Imoto Castle
  94. Echi Kamigishimoto Castle
  95. Echi Kitabodaiji Castle
  96. Echi Nakato Castle
  97. Echi Ogura Castle
  98. Echi Shimozato Castle
  99. Echi Yamori Castle
  100. Echigo Kanayama Castle
  101. Echigo Katsuyama Castle
  102. Echigo Kiyosaki Castle
  103. Echigo Matsudai Castle
  104. Echizen Ohno Castle
  105. Egawa Fort
  106. Ema Yakata
  107. Enryakuji Higashitani Fort
  108. Enryakuji Kitatani Fort
  109. Enryakuji Nishitani Fort
  110. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  111. Fujita Castle
  112. Fukakusa Yakata
  113. Fukazawa Castle
  114. Fukuyo Castle
  115. Fumimichi Castle
  116. Funaoka Castle
  117. Funaokayama Castle
  118. Funayama Castle
  119. Furuwatari Castle
  120. Futamata Castle
  121. Futoge Castle
  122. Futoh'yama Castle
  123. Gamou Isshiki Castle
  124. Gamou Minamitsuda Castle
  125. Ganjaku Castle
  126. Gassan Toda Castle
  127. Gifu Castle
  128. Gion Castle
  129. Gobara Castle
  130. Gokan Castle
  131. Gongen Yakata
  132. Gouda Fort
  133. Haba Castle
  134. Habauehori Yashiki
  135. Hachigata Castle
  136. Hachikenchōja Castle
  137. Hachioji Castle
  138. Hagi Castle
  139. Hagikura Fort
  140. Hagiwarasuwa Castle
  141. Haibara Castle
  142. Hakusan Castle
  143. Hamada Castle
  144. Hamagawa Castle
  145. Hanamaki Castle
  146. Hanawa Castle
  147. Hanazono Castle
  148. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  149. Haneo Castle
  150. Hanishina Motai Castle
  151. Hanishina Terao Castle
  152. Haranomoto Castle
  153. Harima Hakusan Castle
  154. Hasedo Castle
  155. Hatakenaka Yakata
  156. Hatayama Castle
  157. Hatsuzawa Castle
  158. Hattori Castle (Koka)
  159. Hayaotoshi Castle
  160. Hayashikojo Castle
  161. Hayashiohjo Castle
  162. Hekirichi Jinya
  163. Hida Hirose Castle
  164. Hida Kojima Castle
  165. Hida Takayama Castle
  166. Higashi Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  167. Hikaru Castle
  168. Hiki Castle
  169. Hikobe Yashiki
  170. Hinode Castle
  171. Hirai Castle
  172. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  173. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  174. Hirakura Castle
  175. Hirase Castle
  176. Hirase Kitano Castle
  177. Hisawa Castle
  178. Hishakuyama Castle
  179. Hitachi Fuchuu Castle
  180. Hitachi Yamagata Castle
  181. Hitachi Yorii Castle
  182. Hitachi Yoshida Castle
  183. Hiyama Castle
  184. Hojo Clan Residence
  185. Horigane Yakata
  186. Horikoshi Castle
  187. Hosogaya Yakata
  188. Houzouji Yakata
  189. Hyakusaiji Castle
  190. Ibarayama Castle
  191. Ibayama Castle
  192. Ibuka Castle
  193. Ichinomiya Castle
  194. Iga Hijiyama Castle
  195. Iga Mibuno Castle
  196. Igawa Castle
  197. Iida Castle
  198. Iida Fort
  199. Iinawa Castle
  200. Ijiri Yashiki
  201. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  202. Imai Castle
  203. Imai Fort
  204. Ina Akasu Castle
  205. Ina Inamura Castle
  206. Ina Joumura Castle
  207. Ina Kasuga Castle
  208. Ina Kitano Castle
  209. Ina Kiyomizu Castle
  210. Ina Koide Castle
  211. Ina Konishi Castle
  212. Ina Korin Castle
  213. Ina Kurata Castle
  214. Ina Matsuo Castle
  215. Ina Matsushima Castle
  216. Ina Minowa Castle
  217. Ina Nagayama Castle
  218. Ina Nakagome Castle
  219. Ina Oguro Castle
  220. Ina Ohkubo Castle
  221. Ina Omotegi Castle
  222. Ina Ou Castle
  223. Ina Ryuugasaki Castle
  224. Ina Shimono Castle
  225. Ina Sokura Castle
  226. Ina Suganuma Castle
  227. Ina Suzuoka Castle
  228. Ina Takada Castle
  229. Ina Tanagi Castle
  230. Ina Tenpaku Castle
  231. Ina Yashiki
  232. Ina Yasuoka Castle
  233. Ina Yoshioka Castle
  234. Inamurafuru Castle
  235. Inoue Castle
  236. Inoue Yakata
  237. Inoue Yakata (Shiga)
  238. Inuinofuru Castle
  239. Inukai Castle
  240. Ioto Castle
  241. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  242. Ishigami Castle
  243. Isobe Castle
  244. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  245. Itousakaue Fort
  246. Iwabitsu Castle
  247. Iwadono Castle
  248. Iwaki Taira Castle
  249. Iwakiri Castle
  250. Iwamura Castle
  251. Izaki Castle
  252. Izu Moriyama Castle
  253. Izu Nagahama Castle
  254. Izu Ohdairashin Castle
  255. Izumigashira Castle
  256. Jikouin Fort
  257. Jikouin Yakata
  258. Jindaiji Castle
  259. Jizen Castle (Koka)
  260. Jofukuji Castle
  261. Jouhikage Fort
  262. Joujou Castle
  263. Joumurafuru Castle
  264. Jounoue Fort
  265. Kaesa Castle
  266. Kai Asahiyama Castle
  267. Kai Koyama Castle
  268. Kai Maruyama Fort
  269. Kai Yashiro Yashiki
  270. Kakegawako Castle
  271. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  272. Kamagatake Castle
  273. Kamaha Castle
  274. Kamimakifuru Castle
  275. Kamogatake Castle
  276. Kanaiyama Castle
  277. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  278. Kanayama Castle
  279. Kanazawa Castle
  280. Kanbara Castle
  281. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  282. Kannonji Castle
  283. Kanzaki Ishibayama Castle
  284. Kanzaki Kitasudayama Castle
  285. Kanzaki Wadayama Castle
  286. Karakai Castle
  287. Karasaki Castle
  288. Karasawayama Castle
  289. Karasuyama Castle
  290. Karidako Castle
  291. Karidaoh Castle
  292. Kariya Castle
  293. Kariyahara Castle
  294. Kasama Castle
  295. Kasane Castle
  296. Kaseyama Castle
  297. Kashiwara Castle
  298. Kasugayama Castle
  299. Kasumi Castle
  300. Katsunuma Castle
  301. Katsunumashi Yakata
  302. Katsurayama Castle
  303. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  304. Kawahara Castle
  305. Kawamura Castle
  306. Kazurayama Castle
  307. Kibune Castle
  308. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  309. Kirarazaka Castle
  310. Kirihara Castle
  311. Kiso Fukushima Castle
  312. Kiso Uenodan Castle
  313. Kita Kumai Castle
  314. Kita Majino Castle
  315. Kita Wakamiko Castle
  316. Kitaaranami Fort
  317. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  318. Kitatsumeno Fort
  319. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  320. Koga Castle
  321. Kogane Castle
  322. Koibuchi Castle
  323. Koide Ara Castle
  324. Koide Fubukikaito Castle
  325. Koide Maruyama Castle
  326. Koide Muraoka Castle
  327. Koide Uchi Castle
  328. Koide Yakushidou Castle
  329. Koike Fort
  330. Koiwatake Castle
  331. Kokokuji Castle
  332. Kokururi Castle
  333. Komaki Castle
  334. Komakijou Ohte Fort
  335. Komasawa Castle
  336. Komoro Castle
  337. Konosumiyama Castle
  338. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  339. Koraku Castle
  340. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  341. Koshibami Castle
  342. Koshigoe Castle
  343. Kosobu Yakata
  344. Kosodeonzakijinja Castle
  345. Kosuge Castle
  346. Koujin'o Castle
  347. Kounomine Castle
  348. Kouzuke Hakota Castle
  349. Kouzuke Niiya Castle
  350. Kouzuke Warabi Castle
  351. Koya Castle
  352. Koyama Castle
  353. Kozukue Castle
  354. Kozutsumi Castle
  355. Kubodera Castle
  356. Kubota Castle
  357. Kuboyashikishi Castle (Koka)
  358. Kukuri Castle
  359. Kuma Castle
  360. Kumamoto Castle
  361. Kunohe Castle
  362. Kurahone Castle
  363. Kurita Castle
  364. Kurobane Castle
  365. Kuroi Castle
  366. Kurono Castle
  367. Kuruma Castle
  368. Kururi Castle
  369. Kutsukake Castle
  370. Kuwabara Castle
  371. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  372. Kyouraishiminbu Yakata
  373. Machimura Fort
  374. Maeda Battery
  375. Makabe Castle
  376. Mamabe Castle
  377. Manago Castle
  378. Mariko Castle
  379. Marikoyama Fort
  380. Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  381. Masugatayama Castle
  382. Masuo Castle
  383. Matsudaira Castle
  384. Matsuida Castle
  385. Matsukura Castle
  386. Matsuo Castle
  387. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  388. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  389. Meiseireijin Fort
  390. Mikawa Kaminogou Castle
  391. Mikawa Oka Castle
  392. Mikawa Terabe Castle
  393. Mikawa Yamanaka Castle
  394. Mikkaichiba Castle
  395. Minagawa Castle
  396. Minakuchi Okayama Castle
  397. Minami Kumai Castle
  398. Minami Majino Castle
  399. Minami Sakaide Castle
  400. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  401. Minebata Castle
  402. Minegadou Castle
  403. Mino Ikeda Castle
  404. Mino Ima Castle
  405. Mino Kaneyama Castle
  406. Mino Matsuo Castle
  407. Minochi Aiki Castle
  408. Minochi Masugata Castle
  409. Minokubi Castle
  410. Minowa Castle
  411. Misayama Castle
  412. Mito Castle
  413. Miyahara Castle
  414. Mizuban Castle
  415. Mizuki
  416. Mochizuki Castle (Koka)
  417. Mochizukishi Castle (Koka)
  418. Mogusa Castle
  419. Momochi Tamba Castle
  420. Morioka Castle
  421. Moriya Castle
  422. Moriyama Castle
  423. Moroto Castle
  424. Motosakura Castle
  425. Motosu Castle
  426. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  427. Mumo Castle
  428. Murakami Ara Castle
  429. Murakami Hanagoya Castle
  430. Murakami Hime Castle
  431. Murakami Iizuna Castle
  432. Murakami Iwasaki Castle
  433. Murakami Kamei Castle
  434. Murakami Kashiwayama Castle
  435. Murakami Katsurao Castle
  436. Murakami Kemurino Castle
  437. Murakami Kokuzousan Castle
  438. Murakami Kongouji Castle
  439. Murakami Mochikoshi Castle
  440. Murakami Monomi Castle
  441. Murakami Takatsuya Castle
  442. Murakami Torikoya Castle
  443. Murakami Toyo Castle
  444. Murakami Tsubame Castle
  445. Murakami Tsumi Castle
  446. Murakami Wagou Castle
  447. Murasame Castle (Koka)
  448. Musashi Masugata Castle
  449. Musashi Tenjin'yama Castle
  450. Mutsu Iwasaki Castle
  451. Myougi Castle
  452. Nabekura Castle
  453. Naegi Castle
  454. Nagabayashi Fort
  455. Nagahara Castle
  456. Nagaikeyama Fort
  457. Nagamine Fort
  458. Nagashino Castle
  459. Nagato Aoyama Castle
  460. Nagato Katsuyama Castle
  461. Nagoya Castle
  462. Nagurumi Castle
  463. Najima Castle
  464. Naka Castle
  465. Nakahara Yakata
  466. Nakamaki Castle
  467. Nakao Castle (Yamashiro)
  468. Nakasai Castle
  469. Nakatou Castle
  470. Namioka Castle
  471. Nanjou Yakata
  472. Narai Castle
  473. Narisawa Castle
  474. Narisawa Noroshidai
  475. Nasu Kanda Castle
  476. Nata Castle
  477. Natsumichi Fort
  478. Nechi Castle
  479. Nechi Kuriyama Castle
  480. Negoya Castle
  481. Nezumiana Castle
  482. Nezumiana Yakata
  483. Niitakayama Castle
  484. Nijo Castle (Tochigi)
  485. Nirayama Castle
  486. Nishijou Castle
  487. Nishikata Castle
  488. Nishina Castle
  489. Nitchuu Castle
  490. Nochiseyama Castle
  491. Noguchi Yakata
  492. Nosezakanishi Castle
  493. Nouken Castle
  494. Nouken Kurokoma Fort
  495. Nouken Nishi Fort
  496. Numata Castle
  497. Nyuunomi Castle
  498. Oba Castle
  499. Obata Castle
  500. Obata Jin'ya
... further results
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