Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aiki Castle (Minochi)
  2. Akagi Kita Castle
  3. Akagi Minami Castle
  4. Akasu Castle (Ina)
  5. Akatsuka Castle
  6. Akayama Jin'ya
  7. Akechi Osayama Castle
  8. Akiba Fort (Azumi)
  9. Akiyoshi Fort
  10. Akizuki Castle
  11. Akutagawasan Castle
  12. Amabiki Castle
  13. Amanari Castle
  14. Ametoya Castle
  15. Amidagamine Castle (Yamashiro)
  16. Ansho Castle
  17. Aoiyama Castle
  18. Aoki Castle (Azumi)
  19. Aoyagi Castle
  20. Aoyama Castle
  21. Aoyama Castle (Nagato)
  22. Aoyama Castle (Omi)
  23. Ara Castle (Ina)
  24. Ara Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  25. Aragaito Fort
  26. Araihara Castle
  27. Arashi Castle
  28. Aratoshou Castle
  29. Arikoyama Castle
  30. Aruga Castle
  31. Asaba Castle
  32. Asahi Castle (Chikuma)
  33. Asahi Moated Settlement
  34. Asahiyama Castle
  35. Asahiyama Castle (Kai)
  36. Asaka Castle (Chikuma)
  37. Asakura Yakata
  38. Ashigara Castle
  39. Ashikaga Masauji Yakata
  40. Ashinoya Jin'ya
  41. Asonuma Castle
  42. Asuke Castle
  43. Awaji Castle (Chikuma)
  44. Awaya Yakata
  45. Awazawa Castle (Suwa)
  46. Ayukawa Castle (Koka)
  47. Azuchi Castle
  48. Baba Yashiki
  49. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  50. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  51. Bue Yakata (Totomi)
  52. Chausudate
  53. Chausuyama Castle (Nukata)
  54. Chausuyama Castle (Shinano)
  55. Chigasaki Castle
  56. Chihaya Castle
  57. Chikatou Fort
  58. Choujayama Castle
  59. Choujayashiki Yakata
  60. Dainenji Yakata
  61. Damine Castle
  62. Deura Castle
  63. Dokyou Castle
  64. Dousawa Fort
  65. Eboshigata Castle
  66. Echizen Ohno Castle
  67. Egawa Fort
  68. Ema Yakata
  69. Enryakuji Higashitani Fort
  70. Enryakuji Kitatani Fort
  71. Enryakuji Nishitani Fort
  72. Fubukikaito Castle (Ina)
  73. Fuchu Castle (Hitachi)
  74. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  75. Fujita Castle
  76. Fukakusa Yakata
  77. Fukayama Castle (Suruga)
  78. Fukazawa Castle
  79. Fukui Castle (Shinano)
  80. Fukushima Castle (Kiso)
  81. Fukuyo Castle
  82. Fumimichi Castle
  83. Funaoka Castle
  84. Funaokayama Castle
  85. Funayama Castle
  86. Furujouyama Castle (Hanishina)
  87. Furumiya Castle
  88. Furumiya Castle (Kai)
  89. Furuwatari Castle
  90. Fusumada Castle
  91. Futamata Castle
  92. Futatsugi Castle (Azumi)
  93. Futoge Castle
  94. Futoh'yama Castle
  95. Ganjaku Castle
  96. Ganryakuji Castle
  97. Gassan Toda Castle
  98. Genbao Castle
  99. Gentairi Castle
  100. Gifu Castle
  101. Gion Castle
  102. Gobara Castle
  103. Goi Castle (Mikawa)
  104. Gokan Castle
  105. Gongen Yakata
  106. Goryu Castle
  107. Gouda Fort
  108. Haba Castle
  109. Habauehori Yashiki
  110. Hachigata Castle
  111. Hachikenchōja Castle
  112. Hachiman'yama Castle (Tanba)
  113. Hachimanpara Jinsho
  114. Hachioji Castle
  115. Hadanashi Castle
  116. Hadanashiyama Castle
  117. Hagi Castle
  118. Hagikura Fort
  119. Hagiwarasuwa Castle
  120. Haguro Castle (Owari)
  121. Haibara Castle
  122. Hakota Castle (Kozuke)
  123. Hakoyama Castle (Takai)
  124. Hakusan Castle
  125. Hakusan Castle (Harima)
  126. Hamada Castle
  127. Hamagawa Castle
  128. Hanagoya Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  129. Hanamaki Castle
  130. Hanaoka Castle (Azumi)
  131. Hanaoka Castle (Saku)
  132. Hanasaki Castle (Tsuru)
  133. Hanawa Castle
  134. Hanazono Castle
  135. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  136. Haneo Castle
  137. Harano Castle (Suwa)
  138. Haranomoto Castle
  139. Haruyamako Castle
  140. Haruyamaoh Castle
  141. Hasedo Castle
  142. Hatada Castle (Omi)
  143. Hatakenaka Yakata
  144. Hatayama Castle
  145. Hatsuzawa Castle
  146. Hattori Castle (Koka)
  147. Hayaotoshi Castle
  148. Hayashikojo Castle
  149. Hayashiohjo Castle
  150. Hekirichi Jinya
  151. Hida Castle (Omi)
  152. Higashi Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  153. Higashijou Castle (Chikuma)
  154. Hijika Castle
  155. Hijiyama Castle (Iga)
  156. Hikaru Castle
  157. Hiki Castle
  158. Hikida Castle
  159. Hikobe Yashiki
  160. Hikone Castle
  161. Hime Castle (Chikuma)
  162. Hime Castle (Hanishina)
  163. Hinode Castle
  164. Hinohara Castle
  165. Hirai Castle
  166. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  167. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  168. Hiraizumi Date
  169. Hirakura Castle
  170. Hirase Castle
  171. Hirase Kitano Castle
  172. Hirose Castle (Hida)
  173. Hisawa Castle
  174. Hishakuyama Castle
  175. Hitomoshi Castle (Saku)
  176. Hiyama Castle
  177. Hojo Clan Residence
  178. Horigane Yakata
  179. Horikoshi Castle
  180. Hoshina Maenoyama Fort
  181. Hosogaya Yakata
  182. Hosokawashiroyama Castle
  183. Houzouji Yakata
  184. Hyakusaiji Castle
  185. Ibarayama Castle
  186. Ibayama Castle
  187. Ibuka Castle
  188. Ichijodani Castle
  189. Ichijodani Kojo Castle
  190. Ichijodaniyama Castle
  191. Ichinomiya Castle
  192. Igawa Castle
  193. Iida Castle
  194. Iida Castle (Azumi)
  195. Iida Fort
  196. Iimori Castle
  197. Iimori Castle (Azumi)
  198. Iinawa Castle
  199. Iizuna Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  200. Ijiri Yashiki
  201. Ikarashi Yakata
  202. Ikeda Castle (Mino)
  203. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  204. Ima Castle (Mino)
  205. Imai Castle
  206. Imai Fort
  207. Imori Castle (Suwa)
  208. Imoto Castle (Omi)
  209. Ina Yashiki
  210. Inamura Castle (Ina)
  211. Inamurafuru Castle
  212. Inoue Castle
  213. Inoue Yakata
  214. Inoue Yakata (Shiga)
  215. Inuinofuru Castle
  216. Inukai Castle
  217. Ioto Castle
  218. Iouji Fort
  219. Isezaki Castle (Sanada)
  220. Ishibashi Castle
  221. Ishibayama Castle (Omi)
  222. Ishida Castle (Mikawa)
  223. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  224. Ishigami Castle
  225. Ishikawa Jouzan Yashiki
  226. Ishimura Castle
  227. Isobe Castle
  228. Isshiki Castle (Omi)
  229. Isshiki Castle (Suruga)
  230. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  231. Itousakaue Fort
  232. Iwabitsu Castle
  233. Iwabuchi Castle (Aida)
  234. Iwadono Castle
  235. Iwahara Castle (Azumi)
  236. Iwaki Taira Castle
  237. Iwakiri Castle
  238. Iwamura Castle
  239. Iwasaki Castle (Hanishina)
  240. Iwasaki Castle (Mutsu)
  241. Iwazu Castle
  242. Iwazushin Castle
  243. Izaki Castle
  244. Izu Nagahama Castle
  245. Izumigashira Castle
  246. Jikouin Fort
  247. Jikouin Yakata
  248. Jindaiji Castle
  249. Jizen Castle (Koka)
  250. Jofukuji Castle
  251. Jouhikage Fort
  252. Joujou Castle
  253. Joumura Castle (Ina)
  254. Joumurafuru Castle
  255. Jounoue Fort
  256. Kaesa Castle
  257. Kagamiyama Fort
  258. Kakegawako Castle
  259. Kakiage Castle (Chikuma)
  260. Kakutsugawa Castle
  261. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  262. Kamagatake Castle
  263. Kamaha Castle
  264. Kamei Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  265. Kameyama Castle (Azumi)
  266. Kameyama Castle (Mikawa)
  267. Kami Castle (Suwa)
  268. Kamigishimoto Castle (Omi)
  269. Kamimakifuru Castle
  270. Kaminogou Castle
  271. Kamogatake Castle
  272. Kanaiyama Castle
  273. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  274. Kanayama Castle
  275. Kanayama Castle (Echigo)
  276. Kanazawa Castle
  277. Kanbara Castle
  278. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  279. Kanemaru Yakata
  280. Kaneyama Castle (Mino)
  281. Kanmuriyama Castle (Bitchu)
  282. Kannonji Castle
  283. Karakai Castle
  284. Karasaki Castle
  285. Karasawayama Castle
  286. Karasuyama Castle
  287. Karatoriya Castle
  288. Karidako Castle
  289. Karidaoh Castle
  290. Kariya Castle
  291. Kariyahara Castle
  292. Kasama Castle
  293. Kasane Castle
  294. Kaseyama Castle
  295. Kashiwara Castle
  296. Kashiwayama Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  297. Kasuga Castle (Ina)
  298. Kasugayama Castle
  299. Kasumi Castle
  300. Kasumiga Castle (Suwa)
  301. Katsumata Castle
  302. Katsunuma Castle
  303. Katsunumashi Yakata
  304. Katsurao Castle (Hanishina)
  305. Katsurayama Castle
  306. Katsuyama Castle (Echigo)
  307. Katsuyama Castle (Nagato)
  308. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  309. Katsuyama Castle (Yatsushiro)
  310. Kawahara Castle
  311. Kawajiri Castle
  312. Kawamura Castle
  313. Kazurayama Castle
  314. Keirozan Castle
  315. Kemurino Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  316. Kibune Castle
  317. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  318. Kinebuchi Yakata
  319. Kirarazaka Castle
  320. Kirihara Castle
  321. Kita Kumai Castle
  322. Kita Majino Castle
  323. Kita Wakamiko Castle
  324. Kitaaranami Fort
  325. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  326. Kitabodaiji Castle (Omi)
  327. Kitano Castle (Ina)
  328. Kitanosho Castle (Omi)
  329. Kitasudayama Castle (Omi)
  330. Kitatsumeno Fort
  331. Kitsune Castle (Azumi)
  332. Kiyomizu Castle (Ina)
  333. Kiyosaki Castle (Echigo)
  334. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  335. Koga Castle
  336. Kogane Castle
  337. Kogane Castle (Mikawa)
  338. Koibuchi Castle
  339. Koide Castle (Ina)
  340. Koike Fort
  341. Koiwatake Castle
  342. Kojima Castle (Hida)
  343. Kokokuji Castle
  344. Kokururi Castle
  345. Kokuryou Castle (Tanba)
  346. Kokuzousan Castle (Aida)
  347. Kokuzousan Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  348. Kokuzousanminami Fort (Aida)
  349. Kokuzousannanseioneno Castle (Aida)
  350. Kokuzousannishi Fort (Aida)
  351. Komaki Castle
  352. Komaki Castle (Chiisagata)
  353. Komakijou Ohte Fort
  354. Komakikamino Castle (Chiisagata)
  355. Komasawa Castle
  356. Komatsu Castle (Sagami)
  357. Komihanachi Castle
  358. Komori Yakata (Sarashina)
  359. Komoro Castle
  360. Kongouji Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  361. Konishi Castle (Ina)
  362. Konosumiyama Castle
  363. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  364. Koraku Castle
  365. Korin Castle (Ina)
  366. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  367. Koromogawa Date
  368. Koshibami Castle
  369. Koshigoe Castle
  370. Kosobu Yakata
  371. Kosodeonzakijinja Castle
  372. Kosuge Castle
  373. Koujin'o Castle
  374. Kounomine Castle
  375. Kouyama Castle (Bingo)
  376. Koya Castle
  377. Koya Castle (Chikuma)
  378. Koyama Castle
  379. Koyama Castle (Kai)
  380. Kozukue Castle
  381. Kozutsumi Castle
  382. Kubo Castle (Mikawa)
  383. Kubodera Castle
  384. Kubota Castle
  385. Kubota Castle (Nukata)
  386. Kuboyashikishi Castle (Koka)
  387. Kukuri Castle
  388. Kuma Castle
  389. Kumamoto Castle
  390. Kuno Castle
  391. Kunohe Castle
  392. Kurahone Castle
  393. Kurata Castle (Ina)
  394. Kurita Castle
  395. Kurobane Castle
  396. Kuroi Castle
  397. Kurokawashi Castle (Koka)
  398. Kurono Castle
  399. Kuruma Castle
  400. Kuruma Castle (Hanishina)
  401. Kurumayama Castle (Hanishina)
  402. Kururi Castle
  403. Kushiki Castle (Chikuma)
  404. Kutsukake Castle
  405. Kuwabara Castle
  406. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  407. Kuwai Castle (Mikawa)
  408. Kyara Palace
  409. Kyouraishiminbu Yakata
  410. Machimura Fort
  411. Maeda Battery
  412. Makabe Castle
  413. Mamabe Castle
  414. Mamushizuka Castle
  415. Manago Castle
  416. Mariko Castle
  417. Marikoyama Fort
  418. Marune Castle
  419. Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  420. Maruyama Castle (Ina)
  421. Maruyama Douen Castle
  422. Maruyama Fort (Kai)
  423. Maruyama Noutou Castle
  424. Masugata Castle (Minochi)
  425. Masugata Castle (Musashi)
  426. Masugata Castle (Suwa)
  427. Masugata Castle (Takai)
  428. Masugatayama Castle
  429. Masuo Castle
  430. Matsudai Castle (Echigo)
  431. Matsudaira Castle
  432. Matsuida Castle
  433. Matsukura Castle
  434. Matsuo Castle
  435. Matsuo Castle (Ina)
  436. Matsuoyama Castle
  437. Matsushima Castle (Ina)
  438. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  439. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  440. Meiseireijin Fort
  441. Mibuno Castle (Iga)
  442. Mikka Castle (Minochi)
  443. Mikkaichiba Castle
  444. Minagawa Castle
  445. Minakuchi Okayama Castle
  446. Minami Kumai Castle
  447. Minami Majino Castle
  448. Minami Sakaide Castle
  449. Minami Tsuda Castle
  450. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  451. Minebata Castle
  452. Minegadou Castle
  453. Minokubi Castle
  454. Minowa Castle
  455. Minowa Castle (Ina)
  456. Misaka Castle
  457. Misayama Castle
  458. Mitake Castle (Kai)
  459. Mito Castle
  460. Miyahara Castle
  461. Mizuban Castle
  462. Mizuki
  463. Mochikoshi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  464. Mochizuki Castle (Koka)
  465. Mochizuki Castle (Saku)
  466. Mochizukishi Castle (Koka)
  467. Mogusa Castle
  468. Momochi Tamba Castle
  469. Mondo Castle (Azumi)
  470. Monjuyama Castle
  471. Monomi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  472. Morioka Castle
  473. Moriya Castle
  474. Moriyama Castle
  475. Moriyama Castle (Izu)
  476. Moriyama Castle (Owari)
  477. Moroto Castle
  478. Motai Castle (Hanishina)
  479. Moto Castle (Chikuma)
  480. Motodoriyama Castle
  481. Motodoriyamako Castle
  482. Motosakura Castle
  483. Motosu Castle
  484. Motoyama Castle (Chikuma)
  485. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  486. Mumo Castle
  487. Muraoka Castle (Ina)
  488. Murasame Castle (Koka)
  489. Muro Castle
  490. Myogi Castle
  491. Nabekura Castle
  492. Naegi Castle
  493. Nagabayashi Fort
  494. Nagahara Castle
  495. Nagaikeyama Fort
  496. Nagamine Fort
  497. Nagao Castle (Azumi)
  498. Nagashino Castle
  499. Nagayama Castle (Ina)
  500. Nagoya Castle
... further results
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